The name Vietnam originated in when envoys from the newly founded Nguyen dynasty traveled to Beijing to establish diplomatic relations with the Chinese court. The new emperor had chosen the name Nam Viet for his kingdom. The word Viet he derived from the traditional ho chi minh essay questions for reasons why students shouldn’t have less homework Vietnamese imperial domain and its people in what is now northern and central Vietnam.
Nam south had been added to acknowledge the expansion of the dynasty’s domain into lands to the south. The Chinese objected to this new name because it was the same as an ancient state that had rebelled against Chinese rule.
They therefore changed it to Viet Nam. Vietnamese officials resented the change and it did not attain public acceptance until the late s. The ho chi minh essay questions of the origin of Vietnam’s name hos chi minh essay questions several prominent themes that have run throughout the nation’s history.
As the usage of Viet indicates, the Vietnamese have for centuries had a sense of the distinctiveness of their society and culture. However, as the inclusion of Nam shows, the land they inhabit has expanded over time, and also has its own Bmw innovation case study their contact with other, often more powerful, groups.
Vietnam today stands at a crossroads. It has been at peace for over a decade, but since the introduction of the “Renovation” or Doi Moi policy that began dismantling the country’s socialist economy in favor of a market economy, the country has experienced tremendous social changes. Some have been positive, such as a general rise in the standard of living, but others have not, such as increased corruption, social inequality, regional tensions, and an HIV-AIDS epidemic. The Communist Party still exercises exclusive control ho chi minh essay questions political life, but the question of whether Vietnam will continue its socio-economic development in a climate of peace and stability remains uncertain at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Vietnam occupies approximatelyho chi minh essay questions milessquare kilometersan area roughly ho chi minh essay questions to New Mexico, and is situated between 8 and 24 degrees latitude and and degrees longitude. It borders China in the north, Laos in the northeast and center, and Cambodia in the southwest. Its 2, miles 3, kilometers of coastline run from its border with Cambodia on the Gulf of Thailand along the South China Sea to its border with China.
The delineation of Vietnam’s borders has been a focus of Literature review on suppurative otitis media in the post— period, notably the ownership disputes with China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Malaysia over the Spratly Islands; and with China and Taiwan over the Paracel Islands.
Recent progress has been made settling land border disputes with China and Cambodia. Hanoi, the site of the former capital of one of the country’s earliest dynasties, has been the capital of the unified Vietnam since Vietnam contains a wide-variety of agro-economic zones.
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The river deltas of Vietnam’s two great rivers, the Red River in the north and the Mekong in the south, dominate those two regions. Both deltas feature irrigated rice agriculture that depends on the annual monsoons and river water that is distributed through immense and complicated irrigation systems. Irrigated rice agriculture is also practiced in numerous smaller river deltas and plains along the country’s coast. Vietnam’s western Vietnam salient is defined by the mountainous Annamite homework week 1 country’s fifty-four ethnic groups.
Many of these groups have their own individual adaptations to their environments. Their hos chi minh essay questions include hunting and gathering, slash and burn agriculture, and some irrigated rice agriculture. The combination of warfare, land shortages, population surpluses, illegal logging, and the migration of lowlanders to highland areas has resulted in deforestation and environmental degradation in many mountainous areas.
The country is largely lush and tropical, though the temperature in the northern mountains can cool to near freezing in the winter and the ho chi minh essay questions regions often experience droughts. The current population is approximately seventy-seven million composed almost exclusively of indigenous peoples.
The largest group is the ethnic Vietnamese Kinhwho comprise over 85 percent of the population. Other significant ethnic groups include the Cham, Chinese, Hmong, Khmer, Muong, and Tai, though none of these hos chi minh essay questions has a population over one million. Expatriates of many nationalities reside in urban areas. The country’s two largest population centers are Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, but over 75 percent of the population lives in rural areas.
The country’s birth rate, estimated to increase at 1. Vietnamese is the dominant language, spoken by an estimated It is a tonal Mon-Khmer language with strong Chinese lexical influences. The six-toned dialect of the central Red River delta region, particularly around Hanoi, is regarded as the language’s standard form, but significant dialectical variations exist between regions in terms of the number of tones, accents, and vocabulary.
Dialectical differences often serve as important symbols of regional identity in social life.
As the official language, Vietnamese is taught in schools throughout the country. dissertation proposal descriptive statistics the s, Vietnamese governments have made great progress in raising literacy rates and approximately 90 percent of the adult population is literate.
During the twentieth century the country’s elite have mastered a variety of second languages, such as French, Russian, and English, with the latter being the most commonly learned second language today. Linguists estimate that approximately eighty-five other languages from the Austro-Asiatic, Austronesian, Daic, Miao-Yiao, and Sino-Tibetan ho chi minh essay questions families are indigenous to the country. These range from languages spoken by large numbers of people, such as Muong, Khmer, Nung, Tai Dam over, and Chinese, to those spoken by only a few hundred people, such as O’Du, spoken by an estimated two hundred people.
Many minority group members are bilingual, though not necessarily with Vietnamese as their second language. The Vietnamese government extensively employs a number of symbols to represent the walpomo.000webhostapp.com red ho chi minh essay questions and centered, five-pointed gold star; a variety of red and gold stars; the image of Ho Chi Minh; and representations of workers and soldiers.
Images and statues of the latter, ho chi minh essay questions green pith helmets and carrying weapons, are common in public places. Images of Ho are ubiquitous, adorning everything from currency to posters on buildings to the portraits of him commonly found hanging in northern Vietnamese homes. Ho was a strong advocate of national unity and referred to all Vietnamese as “children of one house.
These drums, manufactured by early residents of northern Vietnam in the first and second millennia B. Since Vietnam began developing case study 7 alfred adler tourist industry in the late s, a number of other images have become commonplace, such as farmers in conical hats, young boys playing flutes while riding on the back of buffalo, and women in ao daithe long-flowing ho chi minh essay questions that is regarded as the national dress.
History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Many Vietnamese archeologists and historians assert that the origins of the Vietnamese people can be reliably traced back to at least the fifth or sixth millennium B. A seminal event in the solidification of Vietnamese identity occurred in 42 B. China would rule the region for almost one thousand years, thereby laying the foundation for the caution and ambivalence that Vietnamese have felt for centuries toward their giant northern neighbor.
The Vietnamese reestablished their independence in The next thousand years saw a succession of Vietnamese dynasties rule the country, such as the Ly, Tran, Le, and Vietnam’s ho chi minh essay questions dynasty, the Nguyen — These dynasties, though heavily influenced by China in terms of political philosophy and organizational structure, participated in the articulation of the uniqueness of Vietnamese society, culture, and history. This period also saw the commencement of the “Movement South” Nam Tien in which the Vietnamese moved south from their Red River delta homeland and gradually conquered southern and central Vietnam.
In the process, they displaced two previously dominant groups, the Cham and Khmer. The modern Vietnamese nation was created from French colonialism. France used the pretext of the harassment of missionaries to begin assuming control over best assignment writing help in the s.
By it had set up the colony of Cochinchina in southern Vietnam. In it invaded northern Vietnam and forced the Vietnamese Emperor to accept the establishment of a French protectorate over central and northern Vietnam in This effectively brought all of Vietnam under French control. The French colonial regime was distinguished by its brutality and relentless exploitation of the Vietnamese ho chi minh essay questions.
Resistance to ho chi minh essay questions rule was intense in the early years, but weakened after the late s. The situation began to change dramatically in the late s as a number of nationalist movements, such as the Indochinese Communist Party formed in and the Vietnam Nationalist Party formed inbecame more sophisticated in hos chi minh essay questions of organization and ability.
Such groups grew in strength during the turmoil of World War II. On 19 August an uprising occurred in which Vietnamese nationalists overthrew the Japanese administration then controlling Vietnam. The French attempted to reassert control over Vietnam by invading the country in December This launched an eight-year war in which the Vietnamese nationalist forces, led primarily by the Vietnamese Communists, ultimately forced the French from the country in late Vietnam what are some good persuasive essay divided into North and South Vietnam for the next twenty-one years.
During this period the North experienced a socialist revolution.
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In North Vietnam began implementing its policy to forcibly reunify the country, which led to outbreak of the American War in Vietnam in the early s. This concluded on 30 April when North Vietnamese hos chi minh essay questions captured the city of Saigon and forced the surrender of the South Vietnamese government. On 1 January the Vietnamese National Assembly declared the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, thereby completing the reunification of the Vietnamese nation.
National identity is a complex and contentious issue. One of the most basic components is the Vietnamese language. Many Vietnamese are tremendously proud of their language and its complexities. People particularly enjoy the rich opportunities for plays on words that come from its tonal nature and value the ability to appropriately use the countless number of adages and proverbs enshrined in the language.
Vietnamese also have an attachment to their natural world. The expression “Vietnamese land” dat Vietwith its defining metaphors of mountains and rivers, encapsulates the notion that Vietnamese society and culture have an organic relationship to their environment. Another important component of national identity is the set of distinctive customs such as weddings, funerals, and ancestor worship that Vietnamese perform.
These are ho chi minh essay questions to a great deal of regional and historical variation, but there is a perceived core that many regard as uniquely Vietnamese, especially the process of problem solving approach of patrilineal ancestors by families.
Vietnamese food, with its ingredients and styles of preparation distinct from both China and other Southeast Asian nations, also defines the country and its people.
- According to Vietnamese law, arranged marriage and polygamy are illegal.
- The Gulf of Tonkin incident provided a pretext for American military involvement in Vietnam.
Contemporary national identity’s contentiousness derives from the forced unification of the country in Prior to this, the northern sense of national identity was defined through its commitment to socialism and the creation of a new, revolutionary society. This identity had its own official history that celebrated such heroes as Ho Chi Minh and others who fought against colonialism, but rejected many historical figures associated with the colonial regime, the Nguyen dynasty, and what it regarded as the prerevolutionary feudal order.
South Vietnamese national identity rejected Communism and celebrated a different set of historical figures, Creative writing major jobs those that had played a ho chi minh essay questions in the Nguyen dynasty’s founding and preservation.
After unification, the government suppressed this history and its heroes. The northern definition of national identity dominates, but there remains alternate understandings among many residents in the southern and central regions. Vietnam is home to fifty-four official ethnic groups, the majority of which live in highland areas, although some large groups such the Cham or Chinese live in lowland or urban areas.
Since the hos chi minh essay questions, relations between ethnic groups have generally been good, but conflict has fiction editing services present. The most frequent problem is competition for resources, either between different highland groups or between highland groups and lowland groups that have settled in the midlands and highlands.
Some minority group members also feel discriminated against and resent governmental intrusion in their lives. The government, which at one level supports and celebrates ethnic diversity, has had complicated relations with groups it fears might become involved in anti-government activities.